The PEN model is a biological theory of personality developed by H.J. Eysenck, Ph.D. It measures the higher-order traits of Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism according to a behaviorist theoretical framework.
Extroverted vs. Introverted:
The PEN model sees extroversion as biologically based. The biological basis of extroversion is believed to be cortical arousal, as measured by skin conductance, brain waves, or sweating. On this view, introverts are easily overaroused and dazed, while extroverts are easily underaroused and bored. Thus, extroverted people tend to be sociable, lively, impulsive, and liable to seek out excitement, while introverts tend to be quiet, subdued, and reserved.
Neuroticism: Stable vs. Neurotic
Neuroticism measures the thresholds in the sympathetic nervous system. This is the part of us that is responsible for stress responses in the face of danger. Neurotic people have a low activation threshold and may experience negative emotions in the face of even minor stressors, while those who are stable have a high activation threshold and tend to experience negative affect only in the face of very major stressors.
Psychoticism: Socialized vs. Psychotic
The third factor is psychoticism. Being high in psychoticism not only renders one liable to have a psychotic episode (i.e. break with reality), but also to have high levels of aggression. The biological basis of psychoticism is high testosterone levels (thus explaining why more men than women are high in this trait).
Psychotic people tend to display recklessness and disregard for common sense and other people’s feelings, as well as to express emotions inappropriately themselves. But, on the other hand, higher-than-average levels of psychoticism are also linked to leadership qualities. Socialized people (i.e. those with low psychoticism) tend to be warm, sensitive, empathic, and concerned with other’s feelings.🖕 🖕 🖕 🖕
Já jsem zcela netypickej konzervativní nerd, který ještě nevstoupil do post-PC éry a internety prohlížím na "klasických" desktopech a laptopech a mám non-smart telefon. Ale z toho, co se mi zatím dostalo do pracek (a dopadlo dost na prd, protože mám odmala blbou koordinací pohybů kvůli ADHD a matlání na matlafounech mi nejde) bych preferoval asi NA VÝŠKU.
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